Drinking two to three cups a day of most types of coffee can protect you from cardiovascular disease and early death, a new study found.
“The results suggest that light to moderate intake of ground, instant and decaf coffee should be considered part of a healthy lifestyle,” said study author Peter Kistler, chief of clinical electrophysiology research at the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute and chief of electrophysiology at Alfred. Melbourne Hospital.
The researchers found “significant reductions” in the risk of coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke for all three types of coffee. However, only caffeinated instant and ground coffee reduced the risk of an irregular heartbeat called an arrhythmia. Decaffeinated coffee did not reduce that risk, according to the study published Wednesday in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.
Previous studies have also found that moderate amounts of black coffee (3-5 cups daily) reduce the risk of heart disease, as well as Alzheimer’sParkinson, type 2 diabetes, liver disease other Prostate cancer.
“This manuscript adds to the body of evidence from observational trials associating moderate coffee consumption with cardioprotection, which looks promising,” said Charlotte Mills, professor of nutritional sciences at the University of Reading in the UK. , it’s a statement.
However, this study, like many in the past, was only observational in nature and therefore cannot prove direct cause and effect, added Mills, who was not involved in the study.
“Does coffee make you healthy, or do people who are inherently healthier drink coffee?” she asked. “Randomized controlled trials are needed to demonstrate the relationship between coffee and cardiovascular health.”
The study used data from the UK Biobank, a research database containing the coffee drinking preferences of nearly 450,000 adults who did not have arrhythmia or other cardiovascular disease at the start of the study. They were divided into four groups: those who enjoyed caffeinated ground coffee, those who chose decaf coffee, those who preferred caffeinated instant coffee, and those who drank no coffee at all.
After an average of 12.5 years, the researchers analyzed medical and death records for reports of arrhythmia, cardiovascular disease, stroke and death. After adjusting for age, diabetes, ethnicity, high blood pressure, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, gender, smoking, and tea and alcohol consumption, the researchers found that all types of coffee were associated with a reduction in death from any cause.
The fact that both caffeinated and decaf coffee were beneficial “might suggest that it’s not just the caffeine that might explain any associated reduction in risk,” said Duane Mellor, a registered dietitian and senior professor at the Aston University in Birmingham in the United Kingdom, in a statement. He was not involved in the study.
“Caffeine is the best-known component of coffee, but the beverage contains more than 100 biologically active components,” said Kistler, who holds joint positions as professor of medicine at the University of Melbourne and Monash University.
“It is likely that the non-caffeinated compounds were responsible for the observed positive associations between coffee consumption, cardiovascular disease and survival,” Kistler said.
Drinking two to three cups of coffee a day was linked to the greatest reduction in premature death, compared to people who didn’t drink coffee, according to the release. Ground coffee consumption reduced the risk of death by 27%, followed by 14% for decaffeinated coffee and 11% for caffeinated instant coffee.
The link between coffee and a lower risk of heart disease and stroke was not as strong: Drinking two to three cups a day of ground coffee lowered the risk by 20%, while the same amount of decaf coffee lowered the risk by 6% and instantly by 9%. %
The data changed when it comes to the impact of coffee on irregular heartbeats: four to five cups a day of caffeinated coffee ground coffee reduced the risk by 17%, while two to three cups a day of instant coffee reduced the likelihood of arrhythmia by 12%, according to the release.
One limitation of the study was that coffee consumption was self-reported at a single time point, said Annette Creedon, a nutritional scientist and manager of the British Nutrition Foundation, which is partially funded by food producers, retailers and food service companies.
“This study had an average follow-up period of 12.5 years during which many aspects of the participants’ diet and lifestyle may have changed,” Creedon said in a statement. She was not part of the investigation.
Also, coffee can cause negative side effects in some people, he added. People with sleep problems or uncontrolled diabetes, for example, should check with a doctor before adding caffeine to their diets.
These negative side effects “may be particularly relevant for people who are sensitive to the effects of caffeine,” Creedon said. “Therefore, the findings of this study do not indicate that people should start drinking coffee if they do not already drink it or that they should increase their intake.”
Most studies focus on the health benefits of black coffee and do not take into account the additional processed sugars, creamers, milks, and additives that many people use in coffee.
“A simple cup of coffee with maybe a little milk is very different from a great latte with flavored syrup and cream added,” Mellor said.
Additionally, the way coffee is prepared can also affect its health benefits. Filtered coffee traps a compound called cafestol that exists in the oily part of the coffee. Cafestol can increase bad cholesterol or LDL (low-density lipoproteins).
However, using a French press, Turkish coffee pot, or boiling coffee (as is often done in Scandinavian countries) does not remove cafestol.
And finally, the benefits of coffee do not apply to children; even teenagers should not drink colas, coffees, energy drinks or other beverages with any amount of caffeine, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.